Allah! There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things In the heavens and on earth. Who is there that can intercede in his presence except As He permitteth? He knoweth What (appeareth to His Creatures As) before or after Or behind them. Nor shall they compass Aught of His knowledge Except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend Over the heavens And the earth, and He feeleth No fatigue in guarding And preserving them For He is the Most High, The supreme (in Glory). Al-Baqara (2):255
AALI ‘IMRAN: “The family of ‘Imran”. ‘Imran was the father of Mariam (Mary), the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be upon them. Surah 3 of the Holy Qur’an.
ABAA WASS STAKBARA MA’ AL-TASDEEQ (KUFR AL): A Major disbelief. Refusing to bow to Allah due to pride, even though acknowledging the Divine Truth. It is the type of Kufr that Iblis committed. Those Muslims who do not pray are committing this same sin. See Kufr.
ABADA: Forever. See Khalideen.
‘ABASA: “He frowned”. This is Surah 80 of the Holy Qur’an. The one who frowned is the Holy Prophet Muhammad salla Allaho alaihe wassallam. The one who was frowned upon was the sahaabi Abdallah ibn Umm Maktoum razi Allah anhu
‘ABD: A male slave, a slave of Allah.
ABU BAKR, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM: Also spelled Abi Bakr. He was one of the greatest companions of Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace. His full name is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. The Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, called him as-Siddiq because he always believed in Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without any reservation. He was the first of the four rightly guided Khalifaas (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen) from 1113 AH. The other three, may Allah bless them, were: 1).Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him 13-23 AH.2). Uthman ibn ‘Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, 24-36 AH. 3). Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, 36-40 AH. See Khalifaa.
ABU LAHAB: Fiercest enemy of Islam and paternal uncle of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Surah 111 of the Holy Qur’an. Known as Suratul Masad.
ABU AL-QASIM: It is the Kunya (see Kunya) of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is prohibited to have the Kunya of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 205, Vol, 8. Sahi Muslim, Kitab-ul Adab.
‘AD: An Ancient tribe that lived after the Prophet Nooh (Noah), peace be on him, in the village of Ahqaf in Yemen. It was a very prosperous tribe, but was rebellious against Allah Subhana Ta’ala and their Prophet Houd, peace be on him. So Allah wa Ta’ala destroyed it with a fatal westerly windstorm (Ad-Dabour). See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):50-60.
ADAM, PEACE BE ON HIM: The first man and a Prophet. He was created neither in paradise nor on Earth, but in the realm of Allah’s mercy. From there he was sent to Jannah (Paradise), from where later he was sent down to Earth. He had many offsprings, the most famous ones are Habil (Abel ) and Qaabil (Cain). See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqarah (2):30-39, al-Maidah (5) 30-34.
‘ADHAAB: Punishment, especially the punishment for failing to obey Allah Ta’ala. See Holy Qur’an, Ale ‘Imran (3):106.
ADHAN: Islamic way for calling Muslims to prayer. The Adhan that is announced today was formulated and formalized in 1AH. See Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 583, Vol.1.
ADHKHAR: A special type of good-scented grass found in the Hijaz area of Saudi Arabia. Also known as Idhkhir.
ADIAT (AL): “The coursers”. “Coursers” refer to war horses when they charge, stamp their hooves, breathe heavily and snort in the course of the confusion of battle. Surah 100 of the Holy Qur’an.
‘AFAREET: Evil jinns who are large, powerful and very crafty. Singular: Ifreet.See Holy Qur’an, An-Naml (27):39.
‘AFLAHA: Third person singular of Falaah. See Falaah.
‘AFUW: Al-’Afuwo”: The forgiver or pardoner, in the sense obliterating the memory of wrongdoings from one’s mind. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta’ala.
AH: After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar starts from the day Holy Prophet Muhammad, May Allah bless him and grant him peace, emigrated from Makkah to Madinah, in 622 A.D.
AHAD: 1). One. 2). The Incomparable. When referring to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala, this means: a. That He has no comparison in His Essence or in any of His Attributes. b. that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah.
AHADEETH: Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Singular: Hadith.
AHKAM: Literally means “orders”. In Islam, orders are subdivided into six distinct categories:
- 1). Compulsory, (Fard) = severe punishment if disobeyed. This takes two forms:
a). Fard’ain = Compulsory on every person, e.g. Salat.b). Fard Kifaya = Compulsory on at least one person in the community, e.g. Salat al-janaza.
- 2). Necessary but not cumpulsory (Wajib), e,g. Salat al-Juma’.
- 3). Recommended but not compulsory (Mustahab), e.g. Sunnah prayers, Sadaqa.
- 4). Legal and allowed (Halal), e.g. eating good food, marriage.
- 5). Dissaproved of, but not forbidden (Makrouh), e.g. smoking tobacco.
- 6). Forbidden (Muharram, Haram), e.g. Zina (fornication and adultery).
AHLUL ABAIT: Literally means “the People of the House”. A polite way of addressing the wife and the members of the household. Sometimes used to refer to the family of the Prophet Muhammad, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him and on his family and on all his companions. The blessings here are addressed to the entire household. See Holy Qur’an, Houd (11):73.
AHLUL KITAB: Literally means “the People of the Scripture”. It refers to Yahoud (Jews), Nasara (Christian) and Saabe-een (Sabians). Those who believe in the trinity and that Jesus is God and or the Son of God are considered as Kuffar (unbelievers), even though they are Ahlul Kitab. See Maghdoub and Daaleen. See Holy Qur’an, Yusuf Ali, Al-Maida (5):19, 75-76. See Holy Qur’an, M. Pickhall, Al-Maida (5):17, 72-73.
AHLUL KITAB WA SUNNAH: Literally means “The people of the Book (the Holy Qur’an) and the sayings and traditions, (the Sunnah of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace).” This refers to the people who strive to follow exactly the teachings of the Holy Qur’an and Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, without any deviations.
AHMAD: Another name of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him, prophesied his coming. See Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Holy Qur’an, As-Saff (61):6.
AHQAF (AL): Name of Village in Yemen. Home of the people of ‘Ad. See “Ad. Surah 46 of the Holy Qur’an.
AHZAB: “The Clans”. A famous battle between the early Muslims and the rejectors, in which the Muslims, under the directions of Salman al-Farisi, dug a trench around the city of al-Madinah al-Munawarha to thwart the advance of the unbelievers in 5AH. The battle is also known as the Battle of the Khandaq(Battle of the Trench). See Holy Qur’an, An-Nur (24):55, Al-Ahzab (33):920.Surah 33 of the Holy Qur’an.
AISHA (MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HER): Daughter of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him ) and wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless and grant him peace.
AJAL: 1). Yes. 2). Appointed time. In Islamic terminology it refers to the (appointed) time of death. Allah Ta’ala says in the Holy Qur’an that He will not, (and therefore no-one else can), alter the time of someone’s death. Muslims reject such statements as “the doctor saved his life”, or “he would have lived longer if…” Such statements are made by those who do not believe in Allah or do not have the understanding of the necessity to believe in Allah, thus exposing themselves and saying that the power over life and death is within human capability.
AJTANIBOU: “Leave it!” Gambling and intoxicants were prohibited by Allah in the strongest terms possible, “Ajtanibou!”. It is the highest level of forbidding what is haram. Haram = not only haram, but also a direct prohibition ordered by Allah Ta’ala. “Ajtanibou!” = not only haram, but also a direct command not to approach or be near it for any reason whatsoever. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqarah (2):219, Al-Maida (5):93.
AJZA: Parts. the Holy Qur’an is divided into thirty parts. Singular: Juz.
AJWAH: A kind of Dates.
AKALA: Literally means “ate”. In Islamic theology, it usually means: 1).devouring what is forbidden, whether it be mental, moral, social, physical or spiritual. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Maida (5):69. 2). Spiritual “eating” of the good things in the hereafter in Jannah (Paradise). See Holy Qur’an, Ar-Ra’d (13):35.
AKBAR (SHIRK AL): Major Shirk. This is divided into four categories: 1).Shirk Ad-Du’a. 2). Shirk al-Niyyah wal Iraada wal Qasd. 3). Shirk-al-Ta’a. 4).Shirk al-Muhabbah. For full explanation see Shirk.
AKHIRA: The Hereafter. Not the life in the Barzakh (the life of the grave), but the life in Jannah (Paradise) or the Nar (Hellfire).
‘AALA (AL): “The Most High”. Surah 87 of the Holy Qur’an.
ALAIKA SALAAM: Peace be on him. This is said whenever the name of a malak (an Angel), a nabi (a Prophet) or a rasool (a Messenger) of Allah is mentioned, except for the name or title of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (Sallahu ‘aliehe wa sallam). See Sallahu ‘alaihe wa sallam.
ALAM: World. Singular of ‘Alameen. See ‘Alameen.
ALAMEEN: Takes its root word from “Alam”, meaning world. The Qur’anic meaning of ‘Alameen varies from verse to verse, depending on the context in which it is placed. 1). In Surah 1:2, it means “of all the worlds”. 2). In Surah 3:42, it means “of all nations” 3). In Surah 3:97, it means “of all created beings”. “Wa ma arsalna illa rahmatan lil ‘Alameen.” (We have not sent you [O Muhammad] but as a mercy to all creation.) Surah Al-Anbiya 21:107.
‘ALAQ: “The clot of blood”. Also called Surat Iqraa. Ayat (verse) 1-5 of this Surah were the first five verses revealed to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. They were revealed to him through the Holy Spirit, the Angel Jibreel (Gabriel), peace be on him, in the Ghar Hiraa (cave of Hiraa) in Jabal an-Nur. See Surah 96 of the holy Qur’an.
AL-AQIQ: A valley 7km west of al-Madinah al-Munawarah.
AL-’ARSH: Throne of Allah al-Malik al-Qudus, al-Aziz al-Hakeem. See Surah Taha (20):5
AL-GHURRU AL-MUHAJJALUN: A name that will be given to those Muslims who, on the Day of Resurrection, will have parts of their bodies shining due to their perfect ablution practices. Read Bukhari, Hadith 138, Vol. 1.
AL-HAMD: 1). All praise (is to Allah). 2). Another name for Suratul-Fatiha.Surah 1 of the Holy Qur’an.
AL-HAMDU LILLLAH: Praise be to Allah. Should be said on all occasions and especially after sneezing. Abu Huraira related that the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said: ‘When any one of you sneezes, then he should say “Al-Hamdulillah”, and his brother or friend (who listens) should respond by saying “Yarhamuk Allah”, (Allah have mercy upon you). and then the person sneezing should reciprocate by saying“Yahdikumullah wa yuslahu balakum” ( may Allah guide you and improve your condition). Sahi Bukhari.
ALI IBN ABI TALIB, MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITH HIM: One of the greatest companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The last of the four rightly guided Khalifs (al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen), may Allah bless with him, he ruled from 36AH to 40AH. He was martyred while praying in the Masjid (mosque). See Khalifaa
ALIF LAM MIM: Abbreviated letters, called al-Muqtta’at, revealed at the start of certain Suwar of the Holy Qur’an.
‘ALIM: An Islamic religious scholar. Plural: Ulamaa.
AL-INFITAR: “The Cleaving”. Surah 82 of the Holy Qur’an.
AL-JUHFA: Miqat of the people of Shaam. See Miqat.
AL-KURSI: The seat of Allah, Al-Hayyu al-Qayoum. The size of His seat extends over all the heavens and earth. Even though it is such a huge creation, it is still much smaller than the ‘Arsh (the Throne) of Allah Ta’ala. Surah 2:225 is called Ayatul Kursi. See Surah al-Baqara (2):255 see ‘Arsh.
ALLAH: The name of the Creator of the universe and all that it contains.It is derived from the word “Ilah” which means “the One deserving all worship”, the One to whom all hearts submit in love, fear, reverence, desire, trust and sincerity, and to whom all limbs submit in all forms of worship such as prayers, supplications, sacrifices, invocations, etc. Allah has decreed that His Holy name is “Allah” and has ordained that all His creation call upon Him by the name of “Allah”. In the original Bible and Taurat (in the Hebrew text), the name “Allah” is used.
In Islam, the name God is not used for fear of misunderstanding. To the Christians, it will give them a mental image of a human being (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary, Peace be on him), to some Hindus it creates a mental picture of an animal (a cow). To the Zoroastrians it creates a picture of a fire.Allah, there is none but He, King of universe, the Creator and Originator of all that there is, He has no beginning nor end. He was not begotten nor did He beget. He is not like anything.
ALLAH HUMMA: “O Allah”. This is said when invoking Allah Ta’ala. For example, “Allah humma atina fid dunya hasana wa fil akhirati hasana wa qin a ‘adhab an-nar”. “O Allah, give us the good of this world and the good of the Hereafter and preserve us from the Hellfire.”
ALLAH TA’ALA: Allah the Exalted. See Subhana wa Ta’ala.
ALLAH AKBAR: Allah is the Greatest.
AL-’UZZA: A famous goddess in the Hijaz used to be worshipped by the pagan Arabs in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. See Holy Qur’an, An-Najm (53):19.
AL-YAS, PEACE BE ON HIM: Elisha. A Prophet of Islam. See Holy Qur’an, Al-An’aam (6):36 Saad (38):48.
‘AMAH: A female slave.
AL-AMANAH: The trust or the moral reponsibility or honesty, and all the duties which Allah has ordained.
AMIN: O Allah, accept our invocation.
AMMA BA’DU: An expression used for separating an introductory main topic in a speech; the introductory topic is usually concerned with Allah’s Praises and glorification. Literally it means, “whatever comes after.” It is generally translated as “then after” or “to proceed.”
AMIRUL MUMINEEN: Commander of the Faithful. Title of the leader in the Islamic nation after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The first four faithful commanders of the new Islamic nation were called Al-Khulafaa al-Rashideen, “the rightly-guided Khulafas” (see Khalifaa). They were given this title because they carried out their duties perfectly according to the Holy Qur’an and the practices and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
AMR BILL MA’ROOF: Enjoining the good. The full version is “Amr bill Ma’roof wa nahi ‘anil Munkar”. (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil).
AN’AAM: The Cattle”. Surah 6 of the Holy Qur’an.
‘ANAZA: A stick with a spearhead. Read Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 583, Vol.1.
ANBIYAA (AL): “The Prophets”. Surah 21 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANFAAL (AL): “The Spoils of War.” Surah 8 of the Holy Qur’an.
‘ANKABOOT (AL): “The Spider”. The Spider who made its web over theGhar Thaur (Cave of Thaur) where Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, hid from the Quraish on his way to Madinah. Surah 29 of the Holy Qur’an.
ANSAAB: Idols. See Holy Qur’an, Al-baqara (2):219.
ANSAR: Literally means “Helpers”. 1). The Inhabitants of Madinah, the Aus and the Khazraj tribes, who embraced Islam and supported the Muslim emigrants against the pagan Quraish and other tribes who made war on the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. See Ansari. 2). Helpers of the Prophet Isa (the Prophet Jesus, son of Mary), peace be on him. See Holy Qur’an, As-Saff (61):14 Singular: Ansari
ANSARI: An inhabitant of Madina who embraced Islam and supported the Muslim emigrants who had fled from persecution in Makkah and other places during the time of greater repression against the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. See Holy Qur’an, Suwar Al-Hashr (59):9, Al-Munafiqun (63):7.
‘AQEEEDA: Literally means belief. In Islamic terminology, it means articles of faith. There are six articles of faith. They are:
1. Belief in Allah. We Believe that:
1). He is the Lord and Creator of all that there is. 2). He is the True God and All other deities are false. 3). He is One,and has no associates (son or otherwise). 4). He alone has the knowledge of the Unseen and of the Hour.5). In His Names and Attribute. 6). He never came down to earth in any shape or form. 7). He is Everlasting, He did not beget nor was He begotten and He is not like anything.
2. His Mala’ika (angels). We believe:
1). They are His honored servants. 2). They act only by His command. 3).They are made out of light. 4). They obey all of Allah’s commands. 5). All angels are good and incapable of wrong doing (We do not believe in the notion of a “Fallen angel”.)6). They may be seen by some men only by Allah’s consent. See Malaikah.
3. His Revealed books.
We believe He has sent down books with every messenger .The original books of Allah that were sent to the Prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus no longer exist in their original form. We believe only in the original Taurat (Torah),Zaboor (Psalms) and Ingeel (Gospel). The Holy Qur’an that was revealed to the Seal of the Prophets, Mohammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the only perfect book of Allah that is free from corruption and is a true source of light for all mankind.
4. His Rusull ( Messengers). We believe.
The Messengers of Allah Ta’ala include Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, Abraham, Noah, Jesus , Moses, peace be upon them all. Allah’s Messengers are human beings. Muhammad’s message encompasses and abrogates all the messages of all the other messengers, since Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, is the last Messenger and the Holy Qur’an is the Last Message from Allah before the end of the world.
5. Belief in the Day of Judgment. We believe.
1). In the Final Day, which is the day of Judgment. 2). There will be no intercessors except by Allah’s leave. 3). Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant Him peace,will be given permission to intercede on behalf of all those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and who submitted their will to Him, that is, those who are “Muslims” (Muslim = One who submits his or her will to Almighty Allah). 4). Heaven is for the believers and Hell is for the rejecters.5). In the fount (Kawthar) of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. 6). Our book of deeds will be given to us in our right or left hand (to the believers and unbelievers respectively).
6. Belief in Fate and the Divine Decree. We believe:
1). In fate, whether good or bad, which Allah has measured and ordained for all his creatures. 2). His decree cannot be changed except by his leave. 3).Allah has granted man the free will to choose between good and evil. Thus, there is no excuse for wrong action in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.4). All that is to happen until the Day of Judgment is already written down on the Lauh al-Mahfudh.
O Allah! Let me not die except in Islam, and raise me on the Day of Judgment only as a Muslim. Ameen! Singular: ‘Aqaaid.
AQIQ (AL): A valley in Al-Madina about seven kilometers west of it
AQIQAH: It is the Sacrificing of one or two sheeps on the occasion of the birth of a child, as a token of gratitude to Allah. See Sahi Al-Bukhari, The Book of ‘Aqiqah, Vol. 7, Page No. 272.
AQRA HALQA: It is just an exclamatory expression, the literal meaning of which is not meant always. It expresses disapproval.
ARAAK (AL): A tree from Siwak is made. See Siwak.
ARAF (AL): ” The Heights”. Surah 7 of the Holy Qur’an.
‘ARAFAT: A pilgrimage site, about 25km east of Makkah al-Mukarramah. Standing on ‘Arafah on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah and staying there from mid-day to sunset is the essence of the Hajj (the Pilgrimage).
AL-ARBA’AH: The four compilers of – Abu Da’ud, Nasa’i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah.
AREEM: May be translated as dams or embankment. The ‘Areme (dam) that is referred to in Surah 34:16 is the Maarib Dam whose traces still exist in Yemen.
ARKAN: Pillars. This refers to the indispensable pillars of Islam. There are fiveArkan of Islam:
1. Shahadatain, bearing witness. All Muslims must believe in and utter theShahadatain.
1). The first Shahada is: Ashhadu an la illaha illal ‘lah. (I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.)
2). The Second Shahada: Ashhadu anna Muhammadar Rasoolullah. ( I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) Singular: Shahada = bearing witness, Dual: shahadatain = Bearing witness.
3. Seeam, fasting. Also spelled as Saum. To fast in the month of Ramadan.
4. Zakat, wealth dues. To pay 2.5% of one’s yearly savings to the poor and needy Muslims. The Zakat is compulsory on all Muslims who have saved (at least) the equivalent of 85g of 24 carat gold at the time when the annual Zakat payment is due. Zakat is also due on other things such as silver, animals, crops, etc. For full explanation on Zakat refer to the relevant books written on the subject.
5. Hajj, pilgrimage. To perform the pilgrimage to the Holy City of Makkah at least once in one’s lifetime (if one is able to afford it).
‘ARSH: The throne of Allah. The ‘Arsh is the immense starless heaven that encompasses the visible Universe, which is referred to as the Kursi. Sayyidina ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the relation of the Kursi to the‘Arsh is like that of a small ring lying in the middle of a vast desert. This is why ‘Arsh is correctly translated as ‘Throne’ and Kursi as ‘Seat’ or Footstool’,. although sometimes those who are unaware of the existence and nature of the ‘Arsh translated Kursi as ‘Throne’.
AS: See ‘Alaihe as-Salam.
ASBAB AN-NAZUL: The specific reason and circumstances for the revelation of various verses of the Holy Qur’an. For example: Surat at-Tauba, Ayat 79-80(the story of Abu ‘Aqeel). In 9AH Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked for contributions to finance his Tabuk expedition. Being very poor, but still yearning to contribute, Abu ‘Aqeel decided to offer his services, which lasted from dusk till dawn. He received only two handfuls of barley in payment. He took the entire payment and presented it to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. A group of Munafiqeen (Hyprocrites) saw this and started to deride Abu ‘Aqeel by saying. “Look at Abu ‘Aqeel, does he think that Allah is in need of such a pathetic donation?” Allah Ta’ala become so angry with them that He immediately sent down the Holy Spirit Jibreel (The Angel Gabriel), peace be on him, to reveal Surah 9:79:80 to Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASABAH: All male relatives of a deceased person from the father’s side.
ASGHAR (KUFR AL): A minor disbelief. Being unappreciative of what Allah Ta’ala has provided. See Kufr:
ASGHAR (SHIRK AL): A Minor Shirk:
1. Shirk ar-Rea’. It is carrying out a religious act for worldly gains and not for the pleasure of Allah. For example, giving Zakat (charity) for the sake of fame or praise. 2. Shirk At-Tasmee’: a). Swearing by other than Allah. b). To say: “I depend on Allah and you.” c). To depend on any man. d). To say: “Oh Allah, by the honour of Muhammad do such and such for me.” e). Any belief, saying or action that might lead to Al-Shirk al-Akbar (Major Shirk). See Shirk.
ASHAB AS-SUNNA: The Compilers of the Prophetic Ahadith on Islamic Jurisprudence.
ASHAB AL-MAIMANA: Literally means “companions of the Right”, the righteous people. On the Day of Resurrection, Allah Ta’ala will sort out the good and evil. They will be divided into three groups: Muqarraboon – the exalted class, those who are nearest to Allah Ta’ala. Ashab al-Maimana – the righteous people, those who are destined to enter Jannah (Paradise). Ashab al-Ma-Mash’ama – literally means “companions of the left”; these people will be the inheritors of the Nar (Hellfire). For full explanations of; Muqarraboon, see Surah Al-Waqi’ah (56): 11-26; Ashab al-Maimana, see Surah 56:27-40. Ashab al-Mash’ama see Surah Al-Waqi’ah (56):41-56.
ASHAB AL-MASH’AMA: Literally means “companions of the left”, the evil-doers. These people will be the companions of the Nar (Hellfire) on the Day of Resurrection. For full explanation: See Ashab al-Maimana. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Waqi’a (56):41-56.
ASHABUL AIKA: Dwellers of the wood. Another name for the Midianites. See Madyan. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hijr (15):78, Al-Shu’ara (26):176-191.
ASHARAFUL MURSALEEN: The Most Honoured of all the Prophets. One of the titles of the Holy Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASH-SHAJARA: A famous place between Madinah and Makkah.
‘ASHURA: The 10th day of Muharram (the first month of the lunar Islamic calendar). It is a Sunnah to fast on the 9th and 10th of Muharram to commemorate the freeing of the people of Prophet Musa (Moses), peace be on him, from the Fir’aun (Pharoah) of Egypt. Read Sahi Bukhari, Hadith 222, Vol. 3.
ASIYA: The wife of Fir’aun (Pharoah). She is one of the four greatest created females, the other three being;
1). Mariam (Mary), may Allah be pleased with her, the mother of the Prophet Isa (Jesus), peace be on him. 2). Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her, the first wife of Muhammad, may Allah bless and grant him peace. 3). Fatima,may Allah be pleased with her, the daughter of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.
ASLAHA: Reformed, mended, corrected, improved ways of behavior. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Anbiyaa 921):90.
ASMA WA SIFAAT (TAWHEED AL): Unity of Names and Attributes of Allah Ta’ala. To believe that: 1). None can qualify or name Allah except as He or Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, named or qualified Him. 2). None can be named or qualified with Names of the Attributes that belong only to Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala. For example, none may be called ‘Al-Muhyee” (the Giver of Life) except for Allah Subhana wa Ta’ala himself. 3).We must believe in all the Ayat and Ahadeth (sahih) regarding the attributes of Allah without altering their meaning in any way whatsoever.For full list of the attributes of Allah Ta’ala: See Tawheed.
ASMAUL HUSNA (AL): The Ninety-nine Beautiful Names (Attributes) of Allah Ta’ala. It is haram to add or to delete from the list of Attributes of Allah. It is also haram to give such attributes to anyone else. For the full list of Al-Asmaul Husna:See appendix 1
‘ASR (AL): “Afternoon”. The third compulsory Salat (prayer) of the day. It can be prayed at any time between mid-afternoon and a little before sunset.Surah 103 of the Holy Qur’an.
ASSALAMU ‘ALAYKUM: “Peace be on you”. Greeting of the Muslims. The response to this greetings is “Wa ‘Alaikum Assalam wa Rahmatul-lahi wa Barakatuh”, And on you be the Peace and Mercy of Allah and His Blessing.
AS-SIDDIQ: “The Truthful”. This title was given to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, by the Holy Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. When Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, related his experience of Al-Isra (his night journey to Masjidil Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) Wal Mi’raj (and his ascension through the seven heavens) to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, he immediately and without any reservation replied “Sadaqt”: “You have spoken the truth”. From that on Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came to be known as Abu Bakr as-Siddiq.
ASTAGHFIRUL’LLAH: I seek forgiveness from Allah:
ATHAR: Sayings of the Sahabah, the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, may the peace and blessing of Allah be on him and them.
‘AURA: The part of the body that must always be concealed, except in front of spouses. 1).Man: from his navel down to just below his knees. 2). Woman: her whole body, except for her face, hands and her voice.
‘AWAAMIR (AL): Snakes living in house.
AWLIYAA: Protectors, friends, supporters, helpers. Comes from the same root word as Maula. Singular: Walee.
AYAH: A verse of the Holy Qur’an. Literally means “a sign”. Plural: Ayat.
AYAT: Literally means signs (of Allah Ta’ala). 1). Verses of the Holy Qur’an are called Ayat because each one is a sign from Allah Ta’ala for those who understand. 2). Within the Ayat (verse) themselves Allah gives us numerous Ayat (signs), amongst which are: a) His power b) His creation (earth, heavens, universe, etc..) c) What is in store for those who reject Allah and His messengers and what is in store for the righteous who accepted Allah and His messengers.
AYAT AL-KURSI: The 255th verse of Surah al-baqarah (2) in the Holy Qur’an. See the beginning of Section (A) of this book.
AYOUB, PEACE BE ON HIM: Job. A Prophet of Islam. He was renowned for his patience, hence the idiom “Sabr Ayoub” (the patience of Job), which means complete patience and constancy.
AYYAM AT-TASRIQ: It is a term used for eleventh, twelfth and thirteen of Dhul-Hijjah.
AYYIM: A woman who already has had a sexual experience, who maybe widowed or divorced.
‘AZIZ: 1). “Al-’Aziz”. The Almighty. One of the ninety-nine attributes of Allah Ta’ala. See Holy Qur’an, Al-Hajj (22):40. 2). Title of Egyptian nobleman during the time of the Pharaohs. Sulaikha was the wife of Aziz who tried, but failed, to tempt the Prophet Yusuf (Joseph), peace be on him, into seduction. See Holy Qur’an, Yusuf (12):23-24.
AZLAAM: Literally means “arrows”. It was used in divination to seek good fortune in any decision taken by the pre-Islamic pagan Arabs. See Holy Qur’an, al-Maida (5):90.
‘AZL: Coitus interruptus, i.e. pulling out the penis from the vagina at the time of ejaculation of semen for the purpose of birth control,otherwise known as withrawal.
AZWAJA: Pairs, as in Husband and wife.